Below is a list of relevant studies or reports providing useful background reading on private sector conservation finance. 


Australian Land Conservation Alliance report on "Expanding Finance Opportunities to Support Private Land Conservation in Australia" (October 2018)

Environmental Defense Fund report on "Financing resilient communities and coastlines" (August 2018)

CPIC/PwC report on "Conservation Investment Blueprints: A Development Guide" (January 2018)

Clarmondial/WWF report on "Capitalising Conservation" (November 2017)

Environmental Defense Fund report on "Unlocking Private Capital to Finance Sustainable Infrastructure" (September 2017)

Blue Forest Conservation report on "Fighting Fire with Finance. A Roadmap for Collective Action" (September 2017)

ForestTrends report on "State of Private Investment in Conservation 2016. A Landscape Assessment of an Emerging Market" (January 2017)

Credit Suisse/Climate Bonds Initiative/Clarmondial report on "Levering ecosystems: A business-focused perspective on how debt supports investments in ecosystem services" (April 2016)

Credit Suisse/McKinsey report on "Conservation Finance. From Niche to Mainstream: The Building of an Institutional Asset Class" (January 2016)

Harvard Kennedy School report on "Green Bonds and Land Conservation: The Evolution of a New Financing Tool" (December 2015)

Encourage Capital/Bloomberg Philanthropies/The Rockefeller Foundation report on "Investing for Sustainable Global Fisheries" (October 2015)

Bos Melissa et al. research on "Marine conservation finance: The need for and scope of an emerging field" (June 2015)

natureVest/EKO Asset Management report on "Investing in Conservation. A landscape assessment of an emerging market" (November 2014)

2014 Conservation Finance Practitioners Workshop report "Investigating the Scalable Models of the Future" (May 2014)

EKO Asset Management report on "Sustainable Fisheries Financing Strategies: Save the Oceans, Feed the World Project" (March 2014)

Credit Suisse/WWF/McKinsey report on "Conservation Finance. Moving beyond donor funding toward an investor-driven approach" (January 2014)

Duke University report on "Environmental Impact Bonds" (November 2013)

Center for Global Development and Social Finance report on "Investing in Social Outcomes: Development Impact Bonds" (October 2013)

   WRI report on "Natural Infrastructure. Investing in Forested

   Landscapes for Source Water Protection in the United

   States" (October 2013)      

WEF report on "From the Margins to the Mainstream. Assessment of the Impact Investment Sector and Opportunities to Engage Mainstream Investors" (September 2013)

Sonen Capital report on "Evolution of an Impact Portfolio: From Implementation to Results" (October 2013)

Harvard Forest report on "The Greater Quabbin. Conservation Investment Zone Assessment" (July 2013)

JPMorgan Chase/GIIN report on "Perspectives on Progress. The Impact Investor Survey" (January 2013)

Ecosystem Marketplace matrix on "Innovative markets and market-like instruments for ecosystem services" (2013)

ImprintCapital report on "The Conservation Investment Landscape" (June 2012)

Global Canopy Programme report on "The Little Biodiversity Finance Book" (May 2012)

NRDC report on "Firnancing Stormwater Retrofits in Philadelphia and Beyond" (February 2012)

Report of the Massachusetts Commission on Financing Forest Conservation (July 2011)

The Conservation Fund report on "Forest of the Future. Financing biodiversity, water quality, and climate change mitigation in the Big River and Salmon Creek Forests of California" (May 2011)

EcoAgriculture Partners/USDA case study on "Big River and Salmon Creek Forests" (April 2011)

JPMorgan Chase report on "Impact Investments. An emerging asset class" (November 2010)

Equilibrium Capital report on "Mission Related Investing. Building a Portfolio" (February 2008)